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The information contained on this page represents the situation as of 1 January 2013 and is a summary of the country report produced by the country expert from the network. The summary can be downloaded here as well.

Janka Debreceniova


Country context

The Slovak Republic is a country of five million people. In addition to Slovak nationals, a wide range of minority groups live in the country. The largest groups are Hungarians (8.5%) and the Roma minority. The official number of Roma in the last census (2011) was 105,738 (2%). However, sociological studies indicate 300,000-400,000 or more Roma living in Slovakia. The other minority groups include Czechs, Ukrainians, Croatians, Germans, Poles, Bulgarians, Moravians and Jews.[1]

Main principles and definitions

With the adoption of the ADA, definitions of equal treatment and discrimination were introduced into the Slovak legal system. The Act defines direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate, incitement to discrimination and victimisation.

Enforcing the law

Anyone who considers themselves wronged by a breach of the principle of equal treatment can bring the perpetrator to court. The person discriminated against can demand before a civil court (there are no special labour courts) that the person who breached the principle of equal treatment refrains from such conduct and, where possible, rectifies the illegal state of affairs.

Main legislation

The Slovak Republic isaparty to several international human rights treaties including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights,the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discriminationand the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

Material scope

The principle of equal treatment applies to all areas defined in the EU Directives and overall does not go beyond the scope of the Directives.

In particular, the principle of equal treatment must be observed in the field of access to employment, occupation and other earning activity or function, including recruitment requirements, selection criteria and methods, vocational training, advanced vocational training and participation in active labour market policy programmes, including vocational guidance services, membership and activity in employees’ organisations, employers’ organisations and in organisations whose members carry outa particular profession, including benefits provided by such organisations, and in the fields of social services, social insurance, old-age pension insurance, supplementary pension insurance, state social support and social advantages, healthcare, education, goods and services, including housing (the last provided to the public by legal entities and natural persons who are entrepreneurs). In all these fields, discrimination is prohibited on all the grounds listed in the Anti-discrimination Act. The implementation of the Anti-discrimination Act concerns both the private and the public sector.

Equality bodies

The body designated for the promotion of equal treatment is the Slovak National Centre for Human Rights. According to the ADA, the Centre is an independent, non-judicial body, subsidised mainly throughthe state budget. The role and tasks of the Centre are quite complex.

Go to the European Commission - Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities This initiative is financed by the EC Programme Progress. But the views expressed in this website do not necessarily reflect the official views of the EU institutions.