Main principles and definitions
ADA defines multiple discrimination as discrimination against a certain person on more than one of the prohibited grounds and considers it a severe form of discrimination and it is a circumstance that the court has to take into consideration when determining the amount of compensation or the sanction for a misdemeanour.
ADA prohibits discrimination based on a misconception of the existence of a prohibited ground of discrimination (i.e. a presumption that turns out to be wrong). Further, it prohibits discrimination based on association with person(s) with a particular characteristic.
ADA explicitly defines and prohibits victimisation.
ADA defines direct discrimination as treatment based on any of the prohibited grounds whereby a person is, has been, or could be placed in a less favourable position than other persons in a comparable situation, and indirect discrimination as a situation where an apparently neutral provision, criterion or practice places or could place a person in a less favourable position on the prohibited ground, in relation to other persons in a comparable situation, unless such a provision, criterion or practice may be objectively justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary.
ADA defines harassment as any unwanted conduct caused by any of the prohibited grounds with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person, and of creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading or offensive environment.
The Anti-discrimination Act prohibits intentional encouragement to discriminate, but it does not specifically address instructions to discriminate.
The Anti-discrimination Act prohibits failure to provide reasonable accommodation for people with disabilities. It specifies that a failure to enable disabled persons to use publicly available resources, to participate in public and social life and to have access to the workplace and appropriate working conditions in line with their specific needs by adapting infrastructure and premises and by using equipment and other means which do not present an unreasonable burden for the person obliged to provide it, is considered discrimination.
ADA does not distinguish between citizens and non-citizens and guarantees protection from discrimination to any person and it does not distinguish between natural persons and legal persons either for purposes of protection against discrimination or liability for discrimination.
ADA provides a relatively large number of exceptions to the prohibition of discrimination.
The Anti-discrimination Act provides an exception for genuine and determining occupational requirements. It states that placement in a less favourable position shall not be deemed to be discrimination in relation to a particular job when the nature of the job is such or the job is performed under such conditions that characteristics related to any of the prohibited grounds of discrimination present an actual and decisive condition for performing that job, provided that the purpose to be achieved is justified and the condition appropriate.
Other exceptions are: health and public order; positive actions; granting privileges to pregnant women, children, young people, older persons, persons with caring responsibilities and disabled persons; in relation to occupational activities, entering into membership and acting in conformity with the canon and mission of a church and religious congregation and any other public or private organization if this is required by the religious doctrine, beliefs or objectives; on the ground of age and sex in the course of determining insurance premiums and other insurance conditions; fixing the minimum age/experience/level of educations for access to a certain employment or for acquiring other advantages linked to employment; fixing a maximum age for the termination of an employment or retirement; nationality; regulating the rights and obligations arising from family relations.
Every exception has to be interpreted in proportion to the aim and purpose for which it is provided.