European network of legal experts in the non-discrimination field
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Combating Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the European Union

The European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-Discrimination Field has published a new thematic report entitled ‘Combating sexual orientation discrimination in the European Union’, authored by Dorota Pudzianowska and Krzysztof Śmiszek of the Polish Centre for human rights, under the supervision of Professor Christa Tobler who is the senior coordinator for EU law of the network. The report examines the existing legal frameworks prohibiting sexual orientation discrimination, on international as well as European and national levels. The particular focus of the report is on the relevant provisions of the Employment Equality Directive, the case-law of the Court of Justice of the EU and on the practical implementation on national level in all Member States.

Developing Anti-discrimination Law in Europe - the 28 EU Member States, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey compared

The ninth edition of the yearly comparative analysis – Developing anti-discrimination Law in Europe: The 28 EU Member States, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey compared, has been published and is now available. The objective of the comparative analysis, drafted by Isabelle Chopin and Catharina Germaine (Migration Policy Group), is to compare and contrast the information set out in the 33 country reports prepared by the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-Discrimination Field covering the situation of national law as of 1 January 2014. The comparative analysis provides an overview of national anti-discrimination legislation and reflects on the transposition of the Racial Equality and Employment Equality directives adopted in 2000. As such, it provides a valuable resource of conclusions and comparisons regarding the effective implementation of anti-discrimination law in Europe. In addition, the overview highlights significant EU and national case-law and key issues.

Publications Network of legal experts in the gender equality field

The European Network of Legal Experts in the field of Gender Equality has authored numerous reports which have been published by the European Commission. Please see the overview below.

Please feel free to download the PDF version(s) or to order hardcopies (if available) via the links provided below. For larger orders (i.e. seminars etc.) please contact the EUROPA Publication Office.

European Gender Equality law reviews

European Gender Equality law review 2014-1 (June 2014)
EN
FR DE

European  Gender Equality law review 2013-2 (January 2014)
EN
FR DE

European Gender Equality law review 2013-1 (June 2013)
EN
FR DE

European Gender Equality law review 2012-2 (November 2012)
EN
FR DE

European Gender Equality law review 2012-1 (June 2012)
EN
FR DE

European Gender Equality law review 2011-2 (November 2011)
EN
FR DE

European Gender Equality law review 2011-1 (May 2011)
EN
FR DE

European Gender Equality law review 2010-2 (December 2010)
EN
FR DE

European Gender Equality law review 2010-1 (June 2010)
EN
FR DE

European Gender Equality law review 2009-2 (December 2009)
EN
FR DE

European Gender Equality law review 2009-1 (June 2009)
EN
FR DE

European Gender Equality law review 2008-2 (November 2008)
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FR DE

European Gender Equality law review 2008-1 (August 2008)
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FR DE

General reports

Gender Equality Law in 33 European Countries: How are EU rules transposed into national law? (February 2014)
EN
FR summary DE summary

EU Gender Equality Law - Update 2013 (January 2014)
EN

Gender Equality Law in 33 European Countries - Update 2011 (January 2012)
EN
FR DE

Gender Equality Law in 33 European Countries - Update 2010 (February 2011)
EN
FR DE

EU Gender Equality Law - Update 2010 (December 2010)
EN
FR DE

Gender Equality Law in 30 European Countries 2009 update (October 2009)
EN
FR DE

Gender Equality Law in 30 European Countries (November 2008)
EN
FR DE

EU Gender Equality Law (September 2008)
EN
FR DE

Thematic reports

Self-Employed - The implementation of Directive 2010/41 on the application of the principle of equal treatment between men and women engaged in an activity in a self-employed capacity
EN FR summary DE summary

The Implementation of Parental Leave Directive 2010/18 in 33 European Countries
EN FR summary DE summary

Sex Discrimination in Relation to Part-Time and Fixed-Term Work - The application of EU and national law in practice in 33 European countries (November 2013)
EN

Fighting Discrimination on the Grounds of Pregnancy, Maternity and Parenthood - The application of EU and national law in practice in 33 European countries (November 2012)
EN
FR summary DE summary

The Personal Scope of the EU Sex Equality Directives (September 2012)
EN
FR summary DE summary

Harassment related to Sex and Sexual Harassment Law in 33 European Countries - Discrimination versus Dignity (November 2011)
EN

The Transposition of Recast Directive 2006/54/EC - Update 2011 (August 2011)
EN

EU Rules on Gender Equality: How are they transposed into national law? - Update 2010 (December 2010)
EN
FR DE

Direct and Indirect Gender Discrimination in Old-Age Pensions in 33 European Countries (December 2010)
EN

Making Equality Effective: The role of proactive measures (December 2009)
EN

The Concepts of Equality and Non-Discrimination in Europe: A practical approach (November 2009)
EN

EU Rules on Gender Equality: How are they transposed into national law? (August 2009)
EN
FR DE

Multiple Discrimination in EU Law Opportunities for legal responses to intersectional gender discrimination? (July 2009)
EN

Sex Discrimination in the Access to and Supply of Goods and Services and the Transposition of Directive 2004/113/EC (May 2009)
EN

The Transposition of Recast Directive 2006/54/EC (February 2009)
EN

Anti-discrimination Law Review issues

The European Anti-discrimination Law Review is a bi-annual publication which was produced by the former European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-Discrimination Field, in order to provide an overview of the latest developments falling within the scope of the two EC anti-discrimination directives. Each issue contains two articles on recent legal trends. In addition, there are updates on legal policy developments at the European level and updates from the case law of the European court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. At the national level, the latest developments in non-discrimination law in the EU Member States, Croatia, FYR of Macedonia and Turkey are presented. All issues of European Anti-discrimination Law Review are available below for download:

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 19
EN only

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 18
EN only

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 17
EN only

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 16
EN only

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 15
EN only

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 14
EN only

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 13
EN, FR, DE

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 12
EN, FR, DE

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 11
EN, FR, DE

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 10
EN, FR, DE

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 9
EN, FR, DE

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 8
EN, FR, DE

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 6/7
EN, FR, DE

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 5
EN, FR, DE

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 4
EN, FR, DE

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 3
EN, FR, DE

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 2
EN, FR, DE

Anti-discrimination Law Review - issue 1
EN, FR, DE

How to order publications

All thematic reports, comparative analyses and issues of the Law Reviews are available on this page for download.

To order hardcopies of thematic reports and/or comparative analyses when available, through the EU Bookshop, please see the links in the articles below.

Reversing the burden of proof: Practical dilemmas at the European and national levels

A new thematic report has been published by the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-Discrimination Field, entitled ‘Reversing the burden of proof: Practical dilemmas at the European and national levels’. The authors, Lilla Farkas who is the ground coordinator of the Network for race and ethnic origin and Orlagh O’Farrell who is the national expert for Ireland, examine the theoretical implications as well as the implementation and application on the national level of the anti-discrimination provisions requiring the reversal of the burden of proof from the claimant to the respondent when the claimant has established ‘facts from which it may be presumed that there has been direct or indirect discrimination’. In addition, the report comments upon recent rulings of the Court of Justice of the European Union with regards to the shift in the burden of proof, and finally it analyses a number of practical concerns raised at the national as well as European levels.

European Commission publications drafted by the network

Various comparative analyses and thematic reports were drafted by the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-Discrimination Field and published by the European Commission in order to address specific issues of concern. Please feel free to download the PDF version(s) or to order hardcopies (if available) via the links provided below. For larger orders (i.e. seminars etc.) please contact the EUROPA Publication Office.

Comparative analyses published so far:

Developing Anti-Discrimination Law in Europe - The 28 EU Member States, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey compared (December 2014)
EN only

Developing Anti-Discrimination Law in Europe - The 28 EU Member States, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey compared (October 2013)
EN only

Developing Anti-Discrimination Law in Europe - The 27 EU Member States, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey compared (October 2012)
EN only, Hardcopy

Developing Anti-Discrimination Law in Europe - The 27 EU Member States, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey compared (November 2011)
EN only, Hardcopy

Developing Anti-Discrimination Law in Europe - The 27 EU Member States, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey compared (November 2010)
EN only, Hardcopy

Developing Anti-Discrimination Law in Europe - The 27 EU Member States compared (November 2009)
EN, FR, DE, Hardcopy

Thematic Reports published so far:

Combating Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the European Union
(December 2014)
EN only

Reversing the burden of proof: Practical dilemmas at the European and national level
(December 2014)
EN only

Discrimination of Roma children in education
(November 2013)
EN only

Reasonable accommodation beyond disability in Europe?
(September 2013)
EN only
Summaries FR DE

National protection beyond the two EU Anti-discrimination Directives - The grounds of religion and belief, disability, age and sexual orientation beyond employment
(September 2013)
EN only
Summaries FR DE

Discrimination in Housing
(February 2013)
EN, FR

The Evolution and Impact of the Case-Law of the Court of Justice of the European Union on Directives 2000/43/EC and 2000/78/EC
(November 2012)
EN only, Hardcopy

Trans and intersex people. Discrimination on the grounds of sex, gender identity and gender expression
(June 2011)
EN, DE, FR, Hardcopy

Comparative study of anti-discrimination and equality laws of the US, Canada, South Africa and India
(February 2012)
EN only, Hardcopy

The prohibition of discrimination under European Human Rights Law: relevance for the EU non-discrimination Directives
EN only, Hardcopy

How to Present a Discrimination Claim: Handbook on seeking remedies under the EU Non-discrimination Directives
EN only, Hardcopy

Age and employment
EN only, Hardcopy

In search of a balance between the right to equality and other fundamental rights
EN, FR, DE, Hardcopy

Links between migration and discrimination
EN, FR, DE, Hardcopy

Disability and non-discrimination law in the European Union
EN, FR, DE, Hardcopy

Limits and Potential of the concept of indirect discrimination
EN
, FR, DE, Hardcopy

Segregation of Roma children in education: addressing structural discrimination through the Race Equality Directive
EN
, FR, DE, Hardcopy

Beyond formal equality: positive action under Directives 2000/43/EC and 2000/78/EC
EN
, FR, DE, Hardcopy

Measuring discrimination: data collection and EU equality law
EN
, FR, DE, Hardcopy

Religion and belief: discrimination in employment - the EU law
EN
, FR, DE, Hardcopy

Catalysts for change: equality bodies according to Directive 2000/43/EC
EN, FR, DE, Hardcopy

Equal rights versus special rights? Minority protection and the prohibition of discrimination
EN, FR, DE, Hardcopy

Remedies and sanctions in EC non-discrimination law', ‘Age discrimination and European Law
EN, FR, DE, Hardcopy

Age discrimination and European Law
EN
, FR, DE, Hardcopy

The prohibition of discrimination under European Human Rights Law: relevance for EU Racial and Employment Equality Directives
EN, FR, DE, Hardcopy

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